避免常见的语法错误!让自己的英语写作变得更靠谱一点,让别人的阅读更顺畅一些
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  • 避免常见的语法错误!让自己的英语写作变得更靠谱一点,让别人的阅读更顺畅一些
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    在英语的写作中,有些错误看起来不像错误,或者比较少的人会去注意微小的错误,特别是符号的使用,但是不像随意性比较强的口语,在很多正式的写作中,应该尽量避免犯错,这是一种严谨的态度,要让自己的写作变得更靠谱一些。如果是考试中的写作,那么严谨的写作通常会带来高的印象分。以下罗列写作中常见的错误,有则改之无则加勉,相信很多人都有犯过或将要犯其中的几个。一、逗号连接句子逗号连接句子,顾名思义用逗号连接两个独立的句子。这其实是错误的写法,但是还有很多人还在孜孜不倦地使用,例如:❌: Rachel is very smart, she began reading when she was three years old.正确的写法可以参照以下几种:✔: Rachel is very smart; she began reading when she was three years old.✔: Rachel is very smart. She began reading when she was three years old.✔: Rachel is very smart, for she began reading when she was three years old.✔: Rachel is very smart because she began reading when she was three years old.二、代词指代不一致代词指代不一致是指代词与所指代的名词在数或性别上不一致,例如:每个女孩都必须自带午餐。❌: Every girl must bring their own lunch.✔: Every girl must bring her own lunch.解析:错误句中的 their 与所指代的 every girl 在数上不一致,所以是错误的。没有人知道自己能做什么,除非尝试。❌: No one knows what he can do till he tries.✔: People don't know what they can do till they try.解析:错误句中的 he 与所指代的 no one 在性别上不一定一致,因为 no one 是中性代词,有可能指的是 she,所以是错误的。三、错用撇号( ' )撇号用来表示拥有或缩写,但是不要在物主代词后面使用撇号,例如 my,mine,our,ours,his,hers,its,their 或 their,例如:我母亲的小屋在他的小屋旁边。❌: My mother's cabin is next to his's cabin.✔: My mother's cabin is next to his cabin.注意 it's 是 it is 的缩写,例如:对十月来说,今天很冷。❌: Its a cold day for October.✔: It's a cold day for October.四、主谓不一致主谓不一致是最常见的错误之一。所谓的主谓一致是谓语的数要与主语的数保持一致,也就是主语和谓语同为单数或同为复数,例如:这些菜谱适合初级厨师。❌: These recipes is good for beginning chefs.✔: These recipes are good for beginning chefs.五、修饰语错位修饰语错位指的是没有在正确的位置使用修饰语,包括省略规则,例如:在我八岁那年,我父亲送给我一匹小马作为圣诞礼物。❌: At eight years old, my father gave me a pony for Christmas.✔: When I was at eight years old, my father gave me a pony for Christmas.解析:错误句中对状语从句的省略出现错误,因为从句中省略的主语(I)与主句中的主语(my father)不一致。

    六、片段句子

    片段句子也是常见的语法错误之一。片段是不完整的句子,通常它是与主句断开的句子片段。纠正它们的最简单方法之一是删除片段句子和主句之间的句号。新组合的句子可能需要其他类型的标点符号,例如:

    是他吩咐我才做的。❌: I did it. Because he told me to.✔: I did it because he told me to.七、并列复合从句中丢失的逗号一个并列复合句表达两个完整且相关的概念,它通常包括一个连接这两个部分的连词,且连词前应该有一个逗号,表示这两个概念是相关的,例如:吉姆去商店,埃拉和他一起去。❌: Jim went to the store and Ella went with him.✔: Jim went to the store, and Ella went with him.八、先行词不明确先行词是在代词之前的一个词,帮助读者理解代词的意思。当句中有多于两个且性别一样的先行词时,就有可能出现这个现象,例如:❌: The dad found the boy, and he was happy.解析:此句错在代词 he 指代的先行词不明确,可能是 the dad,也可能是 the boy.

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    九、句子以介词结尾句子以介词结尾是另外一个很常见的语法错误。虽然在非正式场合中,句子以以介词结尾不是什么要紧的事,但是在写作中应该避免这个错误,例如:他为什么来这里?❌: For what reason did he come here?✔: What reason did he come here for?十、弄混同音词有些单词发音相同,但拼写和含义不同。如果把这些混为一谈,这可能是一个令人尴尬的错误,例如:

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    他们的父亲在那里上学。❌: There father went to school there.✔: Their father went to school there.十一、弄混相似词有些单词发音和拼写,甚至意思都很相似,很容易被用错,例如:

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    这场雨对农民的田地有很好的影响。❌: The rain had a good affect on the farmer’s field.✔: The rain had a good effect on the farmer’s field.十二、多余的逗号虽然逗号对句子的清晰性很重要,可以让读者有机会在句子中停顿一下,甚至有可能在不需要逗号的地方使用逗号,但是多余的逗号使写作显得不专业。如果你还是不确定是否要使用逗号,请先查看逗号的使用规则,例如:她因为吃了太多冰淇淋而胃痛。❌: She had a stomach ache, because she ate too much ice cream.✔: She had a stomach ache because she ate too much ice cream.十三、混淆所有格和复数通常用“撇号+s”来表示所有格或缩写,如 it's 是 it is 的缩写形式,而表达复数形式时不要撇号,例如:狗的盘子里全是骨头。❌: The dog’s dish was full of bone's.✔: The dog’s dish was full of bones.十四、混淆 well 和 good通常情况下,well 作副词,good 作形容词,当然 well 也可以作形容词,但跟 good 的意思不一样,所以选用哪个,要看具体的情况,例如:我数学学得很好。❌: I am doing good in math.✔: I am doing well in math.解析:well 这里是副词,修饰 do,而 good 不行。十五、不完整的比较在广告或标语中常常出现的语法错误是在比较时没有显示出比较的另一个对象,这种现象在写作中是一种错误,例如:我的头发比一个月前更柔顺了。❌: My hair is smoother and softer.✔: My hair is smoother and softer than it was a month ago.十六、混用形容词和副词形容词或副词没有正确地修饰该修饰的成分,例如:苏珊送给我一束非常漂亮的花。❌: Susan gave me a real nice bouquet of flowers.✔: Susan gave me a really nice bouquet of flowers.十七、混淆 fewer 和 less当谈论数量时,当指的是一组更少的东西时用 fewer,当指的是一个东西时用 less,例如:这家商店的狗粮快卖完了。货架上的罐头比昨天少。❌: The store was almost out of dog food. There were less cans on the shelves than there were yesterday.✔: The store was almost out of dog food. There were fewer cans on the shelves than there were yesterday.